Download Action Threshold Rar [WORK]
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Download Action Threshold rar
The cough reflex represents a primary defensive mechanism for airway protection in a variety of mammalian species. However, excessive and inappropriate coughing can emerge as a primary presenting symptom of many airway diseases. Cough disorders are characterized by a reduction in the threshold for reflex initiation and, as a consequence, the occurrence of cough in response to stimuli that are normally innocuous in nature. The current therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cough disorders are only moderately effective. This undoubtedly relates in part to limitations in our understanding of the neural components comprising the cough reflex pathway. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of current concepts relating to the sensory innervation to the mammalian airways, focusing particularly on the sensory receptors that regulate cough. In addition, the review will highlight particular areas and issues relating to cough neurobiology that are creating controversy in the field.
Nevertheless, RARs and SARs can be differentiated by comparing their individual mechanical activation profiles, mechanical adaptation properties, central termination patterns and the reflexes that each precipitate (Table 1). Thus, RARs may be activated during both inflation and deflation of the lungs (including lung collapse) [9, 17]. SARs, on the other hand, display activity during tidal inspirations, peaking just prior to the initiation of expiration [9, 16]. As their names suggest, RARs display rapid adaptation (i.e., a rapid reduction in the number of action potentials) during sustained lung inflations, whereas SARs adapt slowly to this stimulus [9, 17]. It is important to note, however, that this rapid adaptation shown by RARs during sustained lung inflations is unlikely an electrophysiological property of the nerve terminal but rather relates to the nature of the stimulus. RARs typically adapt slowly to other types of mechanical stimuli, including dynamic lung inflations, bronchospasm and lung collapse [12, 19]. Finally, activation of RARs evokes tachypnea and airway smooth muscle constriction, whereas SARs are likely the primary afferent fibers involved in the Hering-Breuer reflex, which terminates inspiration and initiates expiration when the lungs are adequately inflated [16, 17]. SAR activation also inhibits cholinergic drive to the airway smooth muscle, resulting in a reduction in airway tone . The different reflexes that are evoked by these afferent nerve subtypes likely reflect the distinct brainstem neurons innervated by RARs and SARs [reviewed in 22].
The appropriateness of employing the term 'cough receptor' to describe the guinea pig extrapulmonary low threshold mechanosensor has also been questioned. Although physiologists commonly describe sensory nerve fiber types as 'receptors' (e.g., muscle stretch receptors, tension receptors, RARs and SARs etc), the term 'receptor' can equally be applied to describe a pharmacological entity (e.g. a G-protein coupled receptor or a ligand-gated ion channel). Given the latter definition, and the observation that capsaicin is one of the most tussigenic stimuli available in conscious animals and humans, it is not surprising that TRPV1 (i.e., the capsaicin receptor) has been identified as a possible 'cough receptor' in guinea pigs and humans . With this approach, any protein responsible for the transduction of a mechanical or chemical stimulus into electrical activity in the sensory nerve terminal (leading to cough) is a pharmacological cough receptor, and therefore a given sensory nerve is likely to have many different cough receptors. However, by defining a protein as a cough receptor it implies that this protein is therefore involved in the cough reflex irrespective of the cell type, tissue or species in which it is expressed. Using the example of TRPV1, it is unlikely that all TRPV1-expressing cells in the airways, and (perhaps with the exception of some nasal and esophageal afferent neurons) improbable that any TRPV1-expressing cells in other tissues or organs are involved in the cough reflex. Furthermore, species such as rats and mice lack the cough reflex, despite possessing numerous TRPV1-positive and capsaicin-sensitive airway afferent nerves [31, 51, 52].
Although these issues may seem an argument of semantics, they highlight the problems associated with the lack of any standard and widely accepted nomenclature system for defining terms and concepts employed by the field. Given that a 'cough receptor' was defined in the first instance as a putative afferent nerve subtype that evokes cough (and was not obviously intended to be employed to describe a pharmacological entity) , it therefore seems appropriate to define the guinea pig extrapulmonary low threshold mechanosensitive afferent nerve subtype as the only cough receptor identified to date.
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Biological retinoid activity is based on the binding of retinoids to specific nuclear receptors (retinoic acid receptors (RARs) bind retinoic acid and RXRs bind retinoids) that act as inducible transcription factors. When activated, these nuclear receptors form RXR-RAR heterodimers or RXR-RXR/RAR-RAR homodimers that subsequently modulate retinoid-responsive gene expression two ways: (i) by binding to retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) in the promoter regions of target genes or (ii) by antagonizing the enhancer action of other transcription factors, such as AP1 or NF-IL6 .
Homeobox (HOX) proteins function as regulators of morphogenesis and cell fate specification and are key mediators of retinoid action in nervous system development. Among members of the HOX family of transcription factors, HOXC9 seems to play an important role in neuronal differentiation. A recent study revealed that the HOXC9 promoter is epigenetically primed in an active state in ATRA-sensitive NBL cell lines and in a silenced state in ATRA-resistant NBL cell lines. Moreover, HOXC9 protein levels were significantly higher in differentiated NBL cells than in NBL cells undergoing ATRA-induced differentiation . 041b061a72